A Critical Look at Gary Young,
Young Living Essential Oils, and Raindrop Therapy
Stephen Barrett, M.D.
This article describes the background and activities of self-styled naturopath Donald Gary Young, his multi-level marketing company Young Living Essential Oils, his former Young Life Research Clinic Institute of Natural Medicine, and his Raindrop Therapy. Also known as Don Gary Young, D. Gary Young, and Gary Young, he was born in Salmon, Idaho on July 11, 1949 and graduated from the Challis, Idaho high school on May 23, 1967 . This is only legitimate educational credential that I have been able to verify.
Young moved to British Columbia and married his first wife, Donna. He claims that while he was working as a logger in 1973, a falling tree struck him on the head. According to an account on his Web site:
After three weeks in a coma and four months in intensive care, Gary found himself paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair for life, according to the doctors' prognoses. Following two years of intense pain and depression and three suicide attempts, he resolved to regain control of his life. He fasted on juice and water for almost a year and finally regained sensation in his toes, marking the beginning of his long and painful road toward recovery. Later he embarked on a worldwide investigation of natural medicine, from herbology and acupuncture to nutrition and naturopathy. This relentless research coupled with an iron determination enabled him to eventually regain his mobility and ability to walk, although not without pain. . . .
It was this pain that eventually led him to discover the potential of a powerful but little-known form of natural medicine—essential oils. Within a very short time, Gary cast off the persistent pain that he had borne for almost 13 years as he began tapping the power of essential oils. by 1986 he was able to run a half-marathon, finishing 60th out of 970 participants .
This description suggests that before Young embarked on his health-related career, he was mentally unstable and possibly even brain-damaged. I seriously doubt that he can substantiate his claim that essential oils actually cured him. In fact, I recently discovered that the above story is contradicted by a brochure, distributed in 1987, which attributed his recovery to "Oscillation Frequency Stimulation Infusion (O.F.S.I.)" and did not mention essential oils . The brochure described O.F.S.I. as a form of "bioelectrical medicine" that "returns cells to their normal state, by raising the oxygen level it normalizes the ion flow across the cell membrane balancing the negative polarity and re-establishing the potassium and sodium levels." 
By 1981, Young moved to Spokane and opened the Golden Six Health Club in Sprague, Washington. Although he had no training in obstetrics or midwifery, he decided to deliver his wife's baby underwater in a whirlpool bath at the health club. He left the baby under water for almost an hour, causing the death of an apparently healthy infant on September 4, 1982. Although the coroner said that the baby would have lived if she had been delivered in a conventional manner, Young was never charged in that case. His plans for an underwater delivery the previous year had been thwarted when a health department caseworker threatened to prosecute him if he followed through with the plan [4-8].
In March 1983, Young was arrested in Spokane for practicing medicine without a license when he offered to provide an undercover agent with prenatal services and to treat her mother for cancer. He claimed falsely to be a graduate of "The American Institute of Physioregenerology." But the institute's owner said that Young attended only a few classes, did only 1/3 of the homework, and owed $1,800 in tuition [4-8]. The prosecuting attorney's statement of charges in the case said:
UNLAWFUL PRACTICE OF MEDICINE committed as follows: That the defendant, Donald Gary Young, in Spokane County, Washington, on or about February 24, 1983, then and there being, did then and there offer or undertake to diagnose, advise or prescribe for a human physical condition, or offer to penetrate the tissue of another human being, by means as follows: offering to deliver a baby of another person; by offering to treat another person for cancer and to detect the presence of cancer in another by. means of a blood sample which he would draw and by a blood test which he would interpret; and by offering to determine the nutritional needs of another person during pregnancy by drawing blood and interpreting the results of a blood test; the defendant at such time not having a valid unrevoked license to practice medicine .
Young pled guilty to the the unlawful practice of medicine and was sentenced to a year of probation. In the plea document he "explained" that he "was engaged in consulting [sic] people in alternative cancer therapy [sic] and offering dietary help in order to give people a program that would work." 
From Spokane, Young moved to Mexico. By this time he had divorced Donna and married his second wife, Dixie. In Mexico, Young ran the Rosarita Beach Clinic where he offered treatment of cancer and other serious diseases. He also established a similar clinic in Chula Vista, California. One of his Rosarita Clinic brochures claimed that he offered "the most comprehensive treatment program in alternative medicine." The modalities included chelation, lymphatic massage, acupuncture, color and magnetic therapies, "bioelectrical medicine," homeopathic remedies, and a vegetarian nutrition program . The clinic also offered iridology, live cell analysis, and "blood crystallization," which he claimed could detect degenerative diseases five to eight years before they caused symptoms.
During the summer of 1987, John Renner, M.D., a National Council Against Health Fraud Board member, used his own blood to undergo three blood crystallization tests under three different assumed names. The first report found weakening of the lymphatic system, a few "non-aggressive" cancer cells, lymphatic and respiratory congestion, inhibition of digestion and assimilation, significant heart stress, and liver toxicity. The second report said there were problems in the liver, thyroid, and intestinal tract. The third report was similar to the second but added pancreatic dysfunction. All three reports recommended "a supervised program of cleansing, detox, and rebuilding." A local pathologist who examined the slides before they were sent stated that all of Dr. Renner's blood components looked normal.
|Later that year, a Los Angeles Times reporter conducted a different sting. After obtaining a test kit by mail, he prepared two slides using blood from an apparently healthy cat that belonged to a Glendale, California veterinarian. After bringing the slides to the clinic, he was told that they showed cancer that had been his system for four or five years. When the reporter suggested that the test be repeated, he used his own blood and was told that the specimen showed signs of "latent cancer" but that problems of the liver, pancreas, and thyroid were present for which "cleansing, detox, and rebuilding" were advisable. A few weeks later, the reporter mailed another blood specimen from a chicken and was told that it showed liver inflammation and "the possibility of a pre-lymphomic condition." As can be seen from the images to the right, chicken blood cells hve nucleii and look very different from human blood cells under a microscope. But the Rosarita Beach Clinic staff did not appear to notice that the blood was not from a human source . A clinic flier stated that Young had researched the test and, after examining over 10,000 specimens, had proven that the test was "95% accurate in diagnosing early stages of disease development." However, it seems more likely that the clinic found nonexistent major problems and offered expensive treatment to everyone who took the test.||
In October 1987, Gary and Dixie Young announced the kick-off meeting of Young Life International, the "marketing arm" for "Dr. Young's Formulas" used at the Rosarita Beach Clinic. I have seen no further information about the nature or fate of this company.
In 1988, Young was arrested in California for misleading and deceptive advertising and for selling supposed cures [13-15]. An undercover agent submitted a sample of her blood with a fictitious male name for the bogus "blood crystallization" test. Young reportedly told her that she had prostate cancer with cells that could act in a "potentially aggressive manner." Other charges against Young included selling unapproved medical devices and unapproved new drugs, manufacturing medical devices and drugs without a license, advertising drugs and devices to cure cancer, and practicing medicine without a license.
After leaving California, Young lived in Sparks, Nevada; Spokane, Washington; Seattle, Washington; and Post Falls, Idaho. By 1992, he had divorced Dixie and married his third and current wife, Mary Billeter Young. He then started his current multilevel marketing company, Young Living Essential Oils (YLEO).
Young's biographical sketch on the YLEO web site and a multitude of independent distributor web sites describes Young as a naturopath and praises him as "one of North America's foremost authorities on essential oils." He claims he was invited by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization to speak at Anadolu University in Eskisehir, Turkey in 1995 . He states that Bernadean University awarded him a masters degree in nutrition in 1984 and a doctor of naturopathy degree in 1985. However, Bernadean is a notorious mail-order diploma mill that has never been authorized to grant degrees .
Young has never been licensed, as a naturopath in Utah or in any other state . In April 2002, the Young Living web site used the title N.D. (naturopathic doctor) after Young's name and stated that Young was a naturopath. In April 2002, a physician who telephoned Young Living was told that he was licensed to practice naturopathy in Utah. The Web site of the Utah Division of Professional Licensing (USOPL) lists the numbers of all licensed naturopaths, but the Young Living employee who was asked for Young's license number, said it could not be given out. After the physician complained to the UDOPL, Young Living removed the title N.D. and references to Young as a naturopath from the its Web site, but this misleading information still appears all over the Net on distributor Web sites.
Young's mail-order "degree" does not entitle him to become licensed in the state of Utah . Actually, he would have no reason to acquire a license because in Utah it is illegal for a licensed naturopath to "own, directly or indirectly, a retail store, wholesaler, distributor, manufacturer, or facility of any other kind located in this state that is engaged in the sale, dispensing, delivery, distribution, or manufacture of homeopathic remedies, dietary supplements, or natural medicines." 
What about Young's claim to be an authority on essential oils? The publisher of the Journal of Essential Oils (JEOR) has confirmed that Young co-authored at least one paper in the JEOR. The publisher also pointed out that the JEOR did not verify his credentials. The JEOR deals only with the basic science of essential oils, not with their clinical application, medicinal or otherwise .
Several true experts in the field of essential oils, all on the JEOR editorial panel, have commented on the transcript of Young's tape "The Missing Link" which has been posted widely on the Internet. This tape, which summarizes Young's bizarre notions about the healing powers of essential oils, is his manifesto. The experts concurred that his ideas are pure junk science:
- Robert P. Adams (Baylor University, Waco, Texas) wrote, "Pure garbage. Nothing else." 
- Rodney Croteau (Washington State University, Pullman, Washington) wrote, "Mr. Young's writings are among the most unscientific and intellectually unsound that I have ever read. There is no doubt that Mr. Young is a genuine quack." 
- Robin Clery (Quest International) wrote that Young's statements "are at best misleading, mostly wrong, and at worst could lead others to misuse essential oils with potentially dangerous consequences." 
In 1998, Butch Owen, an American essential oils exporter living and working in Turkey, investigated Young's claims of Turkish credentials and found them to be unsubstantiated. Professor Dr. Mustafa Keviz, a lecturer on the Agricultural and Plants faculty of Anadolu University, stated that Gary Young had never given any lectures there. The United Nations Development Organization never sponsored Young or invited him to speak. He showed up uninvited and convinced some officials to permit him to present on two topics. Professor Dr. K. Husnu Can Basar (then director of the Medical and Aromatic Plant and Drug Research Center, Anadolu University) described Young's presentation as inconsequential .
Young also claims expertise in the design of equipment for the distillation of essential oils and says that he has designed and built several distillers for producing his oils. However, records from the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Division (UOSHD) suggest otherwise. On August 17, 2000, one of his homemade distillers ruptured at the lid/cover joint, fatally wounding a worker at Young Living Farms in Mona, Utah. The UOSHD's investigation concluded that "No consideration was given in the design and construction of distillation vessels with respect to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) requirements pertaining to the design and construction of pressure vessels." The agency's report said that the vessel had not been equipped with any type of device that could relieve overpressurization within it. Young Living was fined a total of $10,280 for seven safety violations found in the investigation of this accident. The report also noted that in 1999, two other distillation units had been taken out of service after the inspector found violations .
Young's book Aromatherapy: The Essential Beginning has a whole chapter on ancient and modern equipment used for steam distillation . Although the chapter emphasizes that "the best quality of oil would be produced when the pressure was zero pounds during distillation," the UOSHD report noted that steam had delivered to the vessel at 125 p.s.i. (pounds per square inch) of pressure.
That is the background of Gary Young. He is a man with no scientific medical training, with inflated credentials and a history of arrests for health fraud. Now let's examine his company.
Young Living Essential Oils
Young and his third wife Mary Billeter Young started Young Living Essential Oils (YLEO) in Utah in 1992. A biographical sketch describes her as previously quite successful at a multilevel marketing company , which I believe was Sunrider International. Building on her experience, the Youngs established YLEO as a typical MLM company in which "independent distributors" are said to earn money by selling products and by earning a percentage of the sales of the distributors they recruit . The company has been claimed to have more than 250,000 distributors in 20 countries.
YLEO's November 2002 catalog included 71 single oils; 55 oil blends; 11 oil kits; 12 essential waters; 63 toiletry items; 79 nutritional supplements; accessories; promotional items; and equipment such as diffusers, water purification systems, and titanium cookware. The company justifies high prices by claiming that its products are purer than those of its competitors, but it provides no comparative information to support these assertions. The names of many products could mislead consumers by implying clinical effects where none exist. Examples include Brain Power to "clarify and support concentration," ImmuPower "for building, strengthening and protecting the body," and Thyromin to "maximize nutritional support to the thyroid."
YLEO's current Web site avoids many of Young's more extravagant claims. All product descriptions include the disclaimer, "This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease." The FDA has warned the company not to claim that certain products are intended to treat, prevent, cure, or mitigate disease [29,30]. However, blatantly illegal claims and testimonials still appear on the sites of many YLEO distributors.
The top sales leaders publish newsletters for their downline (distributors below them in the hierarchy). One newsletter touted the supposed Egyptian and biblical use of essential oils as evidence of their medicinal effectiveness, even though the mere fact that a substance was used by past cultures does not prove that that it is safe, effective, or useful for any disease state. Another newsletter suggests that independent distributors target church groups by offering seminars on "biblical healing." The distributors could then take advantage of the assembled groups to attract new customers . Another sales leader suggested stopping complete strangers while grocery shopping, telling them about YLEO, and then deducting the gas mileage for the shopping trip as a business expense . In a 1995 training video, Young stated that he persuaded a reluctant user to try his oils by "appealing to his ego," assuring him that he would "make history."  One current user of YLEO products told Dr. Eva Briggs confidently that when Young cured his serious disease with essential oils, he would "make history." This suggests that Young continues to deliberately manipulate his customers.
Essential Science Publishing, of Orem Utah, sells books, videotapes, and audiotapes, some of which propound Gary Young's ridiculous theories and claims for essential oils. This enables false claims that would be illegal in advertising to reach consumers through channels protected by freedom of the press.
In October 2000, Young opened the ambitiously named Young Life Research Clinic Institute of Natural Medicine in Springville, Utah. Because he had run into legal trouble over his lack of a license in two other states, he needed licensed doctors to staff his clinic and to carry out his idiosyncratic brand of healing. His medical staff has included Roger Belden Lewis, M.D., a board-certified family physician, and Sherman Johnson, M.D., a pediatrician who is not board certified.
The Utah Division of Professional Licensing (DOPL) web page shows that Johnson has a disciplinary record. Johnson's license was suspended from 1994 to 1999 for felony medical misconduct related to the misprescribing of narcotics . Two archived articles in the Salt Lake City Tribune provide more details [35,36]. These reports state that Johnson was married for 28 years but also had a long-time friend named Donna Jones for 14 years. Jones was mentally ill with multiple personality disorder, and Johnson acted as her doctor even though (a) pediatricians normally don't treat adults or people with serious mental problems, and (b) romantic involvement with a patient is considered unwise and unprofessional and, in many states, is grounds for disciplinary action. Jones apparently believed that she had cancer. She didn't, but she shaved her head and toted an oxygen tank to look the part. And she became addicted to narcotics prescribed by Johnson for her nonexistent cancer pain. In fact, in the final six months of her life Johnson prescribed 386,000 milligrams of Demerol, an enormous dose. Eventually Johnson injected her with a lethal overdose of Demerol and she died in his arms. He falsified the death certificate and she was buried. He even sang at her funeral. Later, a nurse raised suspicions. The body was exhumed, the overdose confirmed, and no evidence of cancer found. Asked why he never examined his patient, Johnson said that she was "too modest." Asked why he never ordered any tests or work up for cancer, Johnson said that tests were unnecessary because his friend wouldn't lie to him. She had told him that the cancer was injected into her body by "a coven of gay witches and doctors." Johnson avoided a homicide trial by pleading guilty to manslaughter. In a presentencing hearing, the district attorney recommended a sentence of 1 to 15 years in the state penitentiary. Instead, the judge sentenced him to a mere 90 days in the county jail. Johnson was allowed to go home nights and weekends for the final 60 days. He was also fined $12,500. Johnson stopped working for Young during the summer of 2003 and then operated a clinic where he administered hyperbaric oxygen for questionable purposes.
Young's clinic administrator was David K. Hill, who was identified as a chiropractor who had been practicing since 1996. However, my search of the DOPL database found that he did not get a Utah license until October 20, 2004.
How did the Young Life Research Clinic operate? A set of eight case histories  presented at the June 2002 Young Living Grand Convention indicate that patients were asked to bring real medical records to the initial consultation. This supplied the clinic with the established medical diagnoses. Then the clinic doctors performed a variety of quack tests, such as iridology, testing with a Quantum Xrroid device, live blood cell analysis, and so on. The patient was then given some new bogus diagnoses such as "low immune function," "poor nutrition," and/or "parasites." Some of this is described in a testimonial by singer Merrill Osmond, whose son Shane worked at the clinic. The story, which was posted on Young's Web site and was used in a newspaper advertisement, described how live-cell analysis was used to guide his treatment. The article mentioned that Hill explained things to him but did not indicate whether Hill provided diagnostic or treatment services.
Next came the therapies, a wide array of unsound alternative treatment, such as Bio-electric field enhancement (BEFE) (also called the Q2 Water Energy System), colonic irrigation, and Young's own invention, raindrop therapy (see below). Of course, large quantities of essential oils and nutritional supplements sold only by Young Living are required. The bogus diagnostic tests are repeated and the patient pronounced better. Of course, to maintain the new-found health, the patient is advised to continue using Young's products.
The eight case reports were not presented in the scientific manner or format used for standard medical reports. All lacked complete histories, explanations for the diagnostic tests chosen, alternative diagnoses considered, and rational explanations for the treatments selected. Seven of the cases included identifying information about the patients—actual names, birth dates, occupations, etc. Information on the Internet indicated that two of the eight had died less than four months after the presentation.
Treatment at Young's clinic was not covered by most health insurance plans. In 2002, registration cost $349 and the patients had to sign a form stating that they are not a reporter or law enforcement agent. The recommended one-week stay cost $2,000 to $3,000 . The actual price depended upon the treatments administered. The patients also had expenses for transportation, meals, and lodging.
In 2004, the Utah Attorney General charged Barbara Tarwater with practicing medicine without a license by doing diagnostic tests and prescribing products to clinic patients. The Attorney General's petition charged that Tarwater had (a) represented herself as a "Master Herbalist," (b) engaged in iridology, live-cell analyses, and applied kinesiology muscle tests, and (c) prescribed and/or administered essential oils, herbal products, raindrop therapy, and, colonic irrigation, and intravenous vitamin treatment [39,40]. The matter was settled after Tarwater stated in a letter that she had left the clinic, was pursuing nonmedical interests, and would never again diagnose or prescribe .
In October 2005, Young, the clinic, and several members of the clinic staff were sued by a woman from Kansas who alleged that their treatment had caused her kidneys to fail and nearly killed her . The complaint stated:
- During a three-week period in which she was under the defendants' care, the woman underwent suspect diagnostic tests and was treated with multiple types of dubious treatments that included chelation therapy, hydrogen peroxide infusions, vitamin C infusions, and colonic irrigation.
- Toward the end of her stay, she developed nausea, violent vomiting, weakness, and disorientation.
- The clinic staff failed to recognize the nature or seriousness of the problem or make an emergency referral for appropriate treatment even when her she stopped producing urine.
- Within hours of returning home to Wichita, Kansas, the woman was hospitalized for severe kidney failure from which she nearly died.
Around the time that the suit was filed, Young posted a letter on the Young Life Research Clinic Web site that he had closed the clinic and was moving to Ecuador, where that country’s “constitution promotes and supports natural and traditional medicine.”  It seems likely that the relocation was related to fear of further regulatory action.
YLEO promotes a technique invented by Young called Raindrop Therapy (RDT), or Raindrop Technique, which involves dropping essential oils, some undiluted, along the spine and feet and massaging gently [47,48]. According to a proponent Web site:
The Raindrop Technique combines the science of aroma Technique with the techniques of Vita Flex, reflexology, massage, etc., in the application of essential oils, which are applied on various areas of the body to bring structural and electrical alignment. It is designed to bring balance to the body with its relaxing, mild application. It will also help to align and clear the energy centers of the body without using force or excessive pressure. When you combine the electrical frequency and the intelligence of the body and the oil, a greater healing process begins .
In a videotape, Young demonstrates what he does on a woman who lies face-down on a massage table. He applies oil to her feet, massages them, and claims that various points on the feet represent organs located throughout the body. After dripping oil near her spine, he strokes or massages her back, concentrating on the muscles around the spine. Some portions look like an ordinary massage, but Young claims that his procedures cause an "electrical exchange" between the practitioner and the client that "carries energy" to the body's organs. Among other things, he cautions that wearing jewelry would block this process and that the oils must be dropped from within six inches of the client's body because:
You want to be sure you are dropping oil within the etheric field or the electrical field of that person. . . . Most people's electrical field will emanate more than 2 or 3 feet from the body, but the strongest part of that electrical field is within the first 6 inches. . . . The oil drops through their electrical field then harmonize with their electrical frequency and it energizes that oil in balance." 
Young initially claimed that RDT could effectively treat scoliosis by affecting toxins and viruses, which he said cause scoliosis . There is no scientific basis to this claim because there is no evidence that either viruses or toxins cause scoliosis. However, the undiluted oils can cause a burning sensation and skin redness, which the raindrop therapist alleges are evidence that viruses and toxins are leaving the body. In actuality, it is only a local skin reaction to irritation.
RDT uses seven single oils plus two blends formulated by YLEO. The concentrations of several oils exceed recommended safe doses  and can cause skin irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity, and essential oil toxicity. A thorough analysis of the potential problems associated with each of the oils is detailed in the National Association of Holistic Aromatherapists' White Paper on Young Living Oil's Raindrop Therapy . Most RDT practitioners are Young Living independent distributors who learned the technique from brief seminars and training tapes. Such therapists may have no other formal training and thus lack the capacity to recognize complications of the treatment. Many claim that RDT is effective against an variety of medical conditions. Young even advocates using RDT in veterinary medicine, especially for horses . But there is no evidence that RDT is effective for any human or animal medical condition.
Young claims that he developed RDT in part from the teachings of the Lakota Sioux medicine man Wallace Black Elk. However, Black Elk's assistant told told Dr. Eva Briggs that Black Elk did not collaborate in any way with Young to develop the technique, did not teach any specific massage strokes as alleged by Young on his RDT videotape, and did not endorse RDT .
- Gary Young is an uneducated huckster with a track record of arrests for health fraud. He has repeatedly inflated and falsified his education, credentials, and experiences. His inability to recognize the limits of his knowledge and training contributed to the death of his own child. Sherman Johnson, M.D., a medical director of the now-defunct Young Life Research Clinic, deliberately administered a lethal dose of narcotics to a long-time friend, and then attempted to cover his actions by falsifying the death certificate. There is no reason to believe that either Young or Johnson has sufficient judgment, skill, or ethics to appropriately care for seriously ill patients.
- Patients visiting the Young Life Research clinic were likely to waste large sums of money on worthless treatments and be guided away from effective legitimate medical treatments. At best, their life would be needlessly complicated by the prescription of elaborate irrational regimens requiring overpriced products sold only by Young Living. At worst, patients could suffer direct harm from the misuse of essential oils and other dubious treatments.
- Treatment at the Young Life Research Clinic was unwise and expensive. Proper medical care can be obtained elsewhere from legitimately educated, licensed, and experienced health care providers.
- Young Living's essential oils cannot treat or cure any medical illness.
- Raindrop Therapy is potentially unsafe. Essential oils for aromatherapy use are available from many suppliers do not make ridiculous claims and whose prices are not inflated by dubious multilevel marketing practices.
- The Challis Messenger, May 18, 1967.
- The story of a man and his mission. Young Living web site, accessed Dec 10, 2002.
- Bio-electrical medicine - O.F.S.I. Rosarita Beach Clinic brochure, undated, acquired in 1987.
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- Clark D. He seems able to cure everything but a poor memory. Spokane Spokesman-Review, Oct 28, 1986.
- Colwell CD. Information No. 83-1-0235-5. State of Washington v. Donald Gary Young. In the Superior Court of the State of Washington in and for the County of Spokane, filed March 8, 1983.
- Young DG. Statement of defendant on plea of guilty. State of Washington v. Donald Gary Young. In the Superior Court of the State of Washington in and for the County of Spokane. , June 27, 1983.
- Rosarita Beach Clinic brochure, undated, distributed in 1987.
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- Barrett S. Bernadean University: A mail order diploma mill. Quackwatch, revised March 19, 2002.
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- Utah Naturopathic Physician Practice Act 58-71-302 Section 1 d i, ii, and iii
- Utah Naturopathic Physician Practice Act 58-71-801 Sections 1a, 1b, and 2
- Allured J. Personal communication. Jeb Allured, Nov 25, 2002.
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- Citation and notification of penalty. Utah Labor Commission, Occupational Safety and Health Division, Inspection No. 303609242, File Number 7609242.0, Inspection Date 8/18/00, Report Date 12/7/2000.
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- Clinic case histories. Salt Lake City, Utah: Essential Science Publishing, 2002.
- Young Life Research Clinic brochure obtained in 2002.
- Petition. In the matter of the investigation of Barbara Tarwater. Case No. DOPL-2004-134. May 24, 2004.
- Findings of fact, conclusions of law, and recommended order. In the matter of the investigation of Barbara Tarwater. Case No. DOPL-2004-134. March 8, 2005.
- Tarwater B. Letter to David W. Geary. June 4, 2004.
- Complaint. Anne M. Adkins vs. G. Y. Research Institute of Natural Medicine d/b/a Young Life Research Clinic - Institute of Natural Medicine; D. Gary Young; Roger B. Lewis, M.D.; David K. Hill, D.C.; Michael Alsop, D.C.; and Patrick Gunther, L.Ac. United States District Court for the District of Utah, Case No. 2:05CV00894, filed Oct 28, 2005.
- McAllister CJ and others. Renal failure secondary to massive infusion of vitamin C. JAMA 252:1684, 1984.
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- Young DG. Aromatherapy: The Essential Beginning. Salt Lake City, Utah: Essential Science Publishing, 2001, pp. 77-84.
- Raindrop Technique. Salem, Utah: Essential Science Publishing, 2001.
- Allen D. Raindrop technique. WebDeb Web site, accessed Dec 12, 2002.
- Barber K., Gagnon-Warr J. National Association of Holistic Aromatherapists' White Paper on Young Living Oil's Raindrop Therapy. Revised May 12, 2002.
- Brandt N, Vonn Harting M. Videotape: Raindrop Technique for Horses 2000.
- Herman-Tarwater C. Personal communication to Dr. Eva Briggs, Nov 22, 2002.
This article was revised on June 24, 2006.